Ptah-Sokar-Osiris Statuette of 6A-Irj.t, Daughter of Amenhotep, the Priest of Amen-Re

Osama Ibrahim

Abstract


This paper investigates one of the plastered and polychromed wooden Ptah-Sokar-Osiris statuettes of a lady called 6A-Irj.t, the daughter of a priest of Amen-Re called Amenhotep. The provenance is unknown to us; however, the mummiform figure must have belonged to a rich tomb of a large cemetery and to a wealthy character based on the rich colors, decorations, and inscriptions. Based on Raven Typology (1978-1979), the statuette fits in type III: "Ptah-Sokar-Osiris with green face" as evident from its features. These features include: a green face with black and white details in the eyes, the ornamented tripartite hair wig with strips colored in blue, the anDty headdress, the existence of a back pillar, the long base with a deep rectangular cavity before the statuette possibly once filled by a figure of falcon that depicts god Sokar. The green color of the face represents an obvious identification with Osiris, "the Great Green", to indicate resurrection.

The affiliation of the figure to the Type III in Raven topography addresses its dating to the 26th dynasty. Also, the occurrence of anDty crown is a major feature of the 26th Dynasty Ptah-Sokar-Osiris statuettes. The back pillar was also a fixed component of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris statuettes during the 26th Dynasty as Schneider (1977) emphasized. Moreover, the base cavity was also a typical feature of the 26th Dynasty statuettes of this type. Texts also reflect the same conclusion; the owner name 6A-Irj.t was popular among women during the Late period, the use of (T) instead of (t) in the owner's name occurred in the Late Period variations of the name as addressed by Ranke (1935), the use of the Late Period compound proposition m-bAH, and the omitting of the feminine analytical endings was a feature of the Late Egyptian script.

Jewelry contributed to guarantee the protection of the deceased in the hereafter. The broad collar wsx protects the neck and throat of the deceased who is identified with Osiris in his 'joining the earth' day as echoed in chapter 158 of the Book of the Dead.

The texts and iconography probably denote an abstract version of chapter 151 of the Book of the Dead which reveals the burial and embalming of the deceased and cope with the purpose of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris statuettes. This means that the statuette is functioning as a little coffin where this chapter used to be inscribed as Gabolde (1990) explained. Thus, the purpose of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris was to facilitate the transition from death to the hereafter and to imitate the resurrection of Osiris as Schneider (1977) highlighted.

Gods and goddesses displayed in iconography and/or mentioned in texts cooperated to assure the full protection of the deceased. the winged scarab Khepri on the feet carries the Sn sign by its legs preserves the deceased's corpse from decay and; therefore, exist forever. Also, Khepri rescues the deceased from the enemies in the hereafter and helps the deceased to build herself, i.e. resurrect every day. Eventually, Khepri forms a part of a composition including: the deceased as Osiris, flanked by the names of Isis and Nephthys as displayed in chapter 110 of the Book of the Dead.

Beside the two protector goddesses of the deceased Osiris Isis and Nephthys, the figures of four sons of Horus preserve the mummified internal organs of the deceased. Imesty, Dwamutef, Hapy, and Qebehsenuef protect the liver, the stomach, the lungs, and the intestines respectively.

Atum guarantees the deceased a seat in his night bark or his sacred seat for millions of years. Re protects the face and the head of the deceased. He helps the deceased to open her closed eyes to see the sun disk illuminating like 'the horizon dwellers. Maat sustains the deceased's hearing in the 'Silent Land' so that he could hear the judges in the judgement court. He hears the truth that no sins are held against her. The deceased wishes to deliver breath from Shu to the tip of her nose which will help her to resurrect. Geb protects the deceased as he does to Osiris, opens the double doors of earth and receive her, and takeover the enemies of the deceased. Anubis opens the two gates of the horizon for the deceased and protects her like he does to Osiris.

Finally, the Eye of Horus encompasses the deceased, prevents storms from her, keeps her sound for life, and models its magical protection about her flesh as mentioned in Chapter 15 of the Book of the Dead.


Keywords


Ptah-Sokar-Osiris Statuette, Book of the Dead, Reven typology, four sons of Horus

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